Key Components of an Indoor Tracking System

In today’s fast-paced world, businesses need efficient and reliable tracking solutions to manage their assets, optimize their operations, and improve their productivity. This is where indoor tracking systems come in. 

Indoor tracking systems are becoming increasingly popular across a range of industries, from healthcare to retail to manufacturing. By keeping track of people, equipment, and assets within a facility – these systems can provide valuable data and insights that can help organizations optimize operations, improve efficiency, and enhance the overall customer experience. 

What is Indoor Tracking?

An indoor tracking system is a technology that monitors the location and movement of people, goods, and equipment within a confined space. It uses a combination of interacting technologies to provide real-time data on target movement, particularly in situations where GPS signals may not be available or reliable.

Indoor tracking can be useful in a variety of settings, such as retail stores, hospitals, museums, and warehouses. It can help administrators keep track of the location of employees, customers, or items within the facility. Beyond that, indoor tracking can be used to collect data on traffic patterns within the facility, helping administrators make decisions and optimize operations.

How Does Indoor Tracking Work?

Indoor tracking is usually enabled through a combination of technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) beacons, Wi-Fi access points, inertial sensors, and machine learning algorithms. These systems can be customized to meet the specific needs of different applications, and can be used to track a wide range of devices, from smartphones and tablets to RFID tags and other IoT devices.

The Key Components of Indoor Tracking Technology

Indoor tracking systems make use of a number of different pieces of technology and software to deliver accurate location data within indoor spaces. These include:


Beacons are small wireless devices that emit Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) signals at regular intervals. They are usually installed on walls or ceilings throughout indoor environments to help triangulate the location of a mobile device.

Wi-Fi Access Points

Wi-Fi access points are used to track a device’s location by detecting the strength of its signal. The signals from multiple access points can be combined to pinpoint the exact location of a device within an indoor space.

Inertial Sensors

Inertial sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes can be used to understand how a mobile device is moving within an indoor environment. These sensors are capable of detecting changes in direction and speed, allowing for precise tracking of a device’s movements.

Machine Learning Algorithms

Machine learning algorithms are used to process the data collected from beacons, Wi-Fi access points, and inertial sensors. These algorithms can take into account factors such as signal strength, device orientation, and movement patterns to improve the accuracy of location estimates.

What is Positioning Technology?

Positioning technology in indoor tracking refers to the use of different techniques to determine the location of objects or people within indoor spaces. These techniques rely on a variety of sensors and technologies to track the movements of objects or people, and provide information about their position in real-time. 

Aside from the individual components that work together to enable indoor tracking, there are also different ways of approaching the challenge of positioning within an indoor environment. Here’s a look at some of the most common:

Wi-Fi-Based Positioning

This technique uses the signals from Wi-Fi access points to determine the location of objects or people within a building. By analyzing the signal strength of different access points, it is possible to pinpoint a device’s location with an accuracy of up to one or two meters.

BLE-Based Positioning

BLE-based positioning systems make use of Bluetooth beacons to triangulate the location of a device. Beacons are programmed with a specific signal strength, and by measuring the signals from multiple beacons it is possible to calculate the position of a device.

RFID-Based Positioning

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags can be used to track objects or people within a specific area. RFID tags are programmed with unique identifiers, and can be read by a reader installed in the area being tracked. The accuracy of this system depends on the range of the reader, but can be as precise as one meter.

Ultrasound-Based Positioning

This technique involves the use of ultrasound waves to determine the location of objects or people within a building. Ultrasound signals are sent from multiple transmitters and then reflected back to receivers, allowing for the calculation of distances and location.

Magnetic Field-Based Positioning

Magnetic field-based positioning utilizes the Earth’s magnetic field to help determine the location of a device. It relies on sensors that measure a device’s orientation and movement relative to the magnetic field, allowing for accurate location tracking indoors.

Visual-Based Positioning

This technique uses cameras to detect the location of objects or people within a building. It relies on image recognition algorithms to identify and track individuals or objects as they move around.

Overall, positioning technology in indoor tracking enables a wide range of applications, including asset tracking, navigation, and real-time location-based services.

What Can a Real-Time Location System (RTLS) Do?

Indoor tracking systems are capable of delivering far more value than a target’s geographic location – they’re built with a number of add-on features that make them even more useful for business logistics. Here are just a few examples of the capabilities that a good indoor RTLS system can offer:

Indoor Geo-Fencing

Geo-fencing refers to a system of virtual barriers that can be programmed into a tracking system. When someone or something crosses one of the pre-set boundaries, the system will be alerted and can take a certain action such as sending an alert, recording an entry/exit point, or triggering another response.

This can be extremely valuable for large facilities and warehouses that have a lot of ground and assets to manage but limited staff.

Employee Location Tracking

In addition to tracking assets, RTLS systems are also capable of tracking the locations of employees in real-time. This type of system can be invaluable for businesses that need to track employee compliance and productivity, or even just to maintain safety in hazardous work environments.

Two-Way Ranging

Two-way ranging is a technique used in indoor tracking to determine the distance between two objects. This technique works by sending a signal from one object, such as a Bluetooth beacon or RFID tag, to another object and measuring how long it takes for the signal to return. The time it takes for the signal to travel gives an estimate of the distance between the two objects.

Two-way ranging is a valuable tool for indoor tracking because it allows for accurate positioning of objects in real-time. This technique can be used in a variety of applications, such as asset tracking and inventory management in warehouses, indoor navigation systems for retail stores, and even tracking the movements of people in hospitals.

The accuracy of two-way ranging can be further improved by using multiple beacons or tags and calculating the position based on the intersection of the signal distances.

Activity History Tracking

Real-time location systems record the movements of their targets and store the data for analysis. This is helpful in many ways – it can be used to identify inefficiencies, detect anomalies, and even calculate the most efficient routes for employees.

This kind of data can also be invaluable when it comes to uncovering problems in the supply chain, as it can help to identify where bottlenecks and other issues are occurring.


An indoor tracking system is a crucial investment for businesses, organizations, and other entities that rely on accurate and reliable data to enhance operations. The system’s capabilities go beyond just tracking the location of people or assets, but also include features that provide valuable insights and analytics. 

In a world where everything moves at breakneck speed, indoor tracking systems ensure operational viability and sustainability. These technologies open up a new door of possibilities, from ensuring employee safety and productivity to optimizing the supply chain.

All these components work cohesively to provide businesses with accurate, real-time data that supports decision-making and improves operations. Contact your Zenduit consultant today to see how indoor tracking can work for you.